***“From August 25th 2016 the Air Navigation Order will be updated, the changes that affect us are minor and consist of changes to the article numbers, to reflect these changes the list of mandatory questions has been modified, specifically questions 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16, please see below. “***
From April 2016 it is a requirement of all tests (excluding C certificate tests) that candidates must answer correctly 5 questions taken from the list of mandatory questions based on legal aspects of model aircraft flying. The examiner should only ask 5 questions and if the candidate does not know the answer to any question the test must be considered as a fail. The examiner will then proceed to ask a minimum of 5 (A tests) or 8 (B tests) questions based on the BMFA Safety Codes for General Flying and local flying rules and for the ‘B’ certificate the ‘Safety Code for Model Flying Displays’.
The examiner should indicate on the test form which questions have been asked.
It is expected that examiners will select questions that are appropriate to the test being taken, however candidates should familiarise themselves with all of the questions on the list. Candidates are not expected to be “word perfect” with their answers but they should be able to demonstrate that they are fully aware of the legal controls for model aircraft flying. For example if a candidate gives the answer to Question 4 (What does article 241 of the ANO state?) when asked Question 3 (What does article 240 of the ANO state?) it is likely they are aware of both answers and the examiner should point out they have answered the wrong question and ask for the correct answer.
Mandatory Question List
Q(1) Who Regulates all civil flying activities over the United Kingdom, including model aircraft ?
The Civil Aviation Authority
Q(2) How are the rules and regulations for flying established in law by Parliament (statute) ?
As a series of Articles contained within in the Air Navigation Order (ANO).
Q(3) What does Article 240 (previously 137) of the ANO state ?
‘A person must not recklessly or negligently act in a manner likely to endanger an aircraft, or any person in an aircraft.’
Q(4) What does Article 241 (previously 138) of the ANO state ?
‘A person must not recklessly or negligently cause or permit an aircraft to endanger any person or property.’
Q(5) Who is legally responsible to ensure that a model is flown safely ?
The pilot in command
Q (6) Which Civil Aviation Publication (CAP) relates specifically to the use of model aircraft, and for which specific purposes only ?
CAP 658, for sport and recreation purposes only
Q(7) According to CAP 658, which model aircraft are required to have an operating failsafe and what is the minimum setting ?
- Any aircraft over 7kg
- Any Gas Turbine powered aircraft
- Any powered model aircraft fitted with a receiver capable of operating in failsafe mode
As a minimum, reduce the engine(s) speed to idle on loss or corruption of signal.
Q(8) What does Article 94 (previously 166) of the ANO say about the responsibilities of the person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft ?
The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft may only fly the aircraft if reasonably satisfied that the flight can safely be made.
Q(9) What does Article 94 (previously 166) of the ANO say about visual contact with small unmanned aircraft ?
The person in charge must maintain direct, unaided visual contact with the aircraft sufficient to monitor its flight path in relation to other aircraft, persons, vehicles, vessels and structures for the purpose of avoiding collisions.
Q(10) What does Article 94 (previously 166) of the ANO say about small unmanned aircraft above 7kg ?
The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft which has a mass of more than 7 kg must only fly the aircraft:
- Clear of controlled airspace unless with Air Traffic Control (ATC) permission.
- Clear of any Aerodrome Traffic Zone (ATZ) unless with ATC permission.
- At less than 400 ft above the point of launch except with permission as above.
Q(11) What does Article 94 (previously 166) of the ANO say about ‘commercial operation’ (previously referred to as ‘aerial work’) for small unmanned aircraft ?
The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft must not fly the aircraft for the purposes of commercial operation except in accordance with a permission granted by the CAA.
Q(12) How is a flight for the purpose of ‘commercial operation’ (previously referred to as ‘aerial work’) defined ?
Any flight for which ‘valuable consideration’ is given or promised in respect of the flight or the purpose of the flight. Essentially any operation of an aircraft in return for remuneration or other valuable consideration.
Q(13) How is ‘a small unmanned surveillance aircraft’ defined ?
An aircraft which is equipped to undertake any form of surveillance or data acquisition.(this includes all camera equipped aircraft)
NOTE: The provision of data solely for the use of monitoring the model is not considered to be applicable to the meaning of ‘surveillance or data acquisition’.
Q(14) What are the separation requirements of Article 95 (previously 167) – for small unmanned surveillance aircraft – when operating over or within a congested area or organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons ?
The aircraft must not fly over or within 150 metres of a congested area or organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons
Q(15) What are the separation requirements of Article 95 (previously 167) – for small unmanned surveillance aircraft – in respect of any vessel, vehicle or structure which is not under the control of the person in charge of the aircraft ?
The aircraft must not fly within 50 metres of any vessel, vehicle or structure not under the control of the person in charge of the aircraft.
Q(16) Except during take-off and landing, what are the separation requirements of Article 95 (previously 167) – for small unmanned surveillance aircraft – excluding the person in charge of the aircraft or anyone under their control ?
The aircraft must not fly within 50 metres of any person
Q(17) What must be obtained before any flight within controlled airspace or an ATZ of an aircraft over 7kg?
Obtain permission from the appropriate air traffic control unit.
Q(18) CAA General Exemption E 4049 – permits FPV flight without a buddy box, but with a competent observer. (a) How must the competent observer monitor the flight and (b) What is the maximum mass of aircraft that may be flown under this exemption?
- (a) The competent observer must maintain direct unaided visual contact with the model at all times
- (b) The aircraft must be below 3.5kg including batteries and fuel
Q(19) Who has legal responsibility for the safety of an FPV flight a) conducted with a buddy box lead and b) conducted without a buddy box lead ?
- (a) The person in charge who must maintain direct unaided visual contact with the model at all times
- (b) The person piloting the aircraft (SUA)
Q(20) According to CAP 658 what are the 8 ‘Only fly if’ checks for an FPV flight of an aircraft over 3.5kg ?
- The activity is solely for ‘sport and recreation’ purposes;
- Two pilots take part;
- A Buddy Box system is employed;
- The person in charge operates the master transmitter;
- The person in charge does not wear the headset or view a screen;
- The aircraft remains within the natural unaided visual range of the person in charge;
- Reliable operation of the Buddy Box is established; and
- A clear handover protocol is established.